The Facts About Income Tax Millions faithfully file their 1040 forms each April. But some things about federal income taxes may surprise you. Share | Related Content Tax Freedom Day Assess how many days you'll work to pay your federal tax liability. You May Need to Make Estimated Tax Payments If… Have income that isn’t subject to tax withholding? Or insufficient withholdings? You may have to pay estimated taxes. Federal Income Tax Use this calculator to estimate your income tax liability along with average and marginal tax rates.